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The representation of older people in ageing research Peace, Sheila M. Inclusive housing in an ageing society: innovative approaches. Researching Learning in Virtual Worlds. London: Springer-Verlag London. Madrid: Al-Mudayna. Philpott, Chris and Spruce, Gary eds. Debates in Music Teaching. Strategic Leadership and Educational Improvement. Read, Jim and Reynolds, Jill eds. Reed, Michael and Canning, Natalie eds. Reflective Practice in the Early Years.

London: Sage Publications Ltd.. Reeve, Charles and Watts, Jacqueline H. Groundwater, drought, pollution and management. Mental health still matters. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Equality Participation and Inclusion 2: Diverse Contexts 2nd ed. Equality, Participation and Inclusion 1: Diverse Perspectives 2nd ed. Robb, Martin ed. Youth in Context: Frameworks, Settings and Encounters. Robb, Martin and Thomson, Rachel eds. Critical Practice with Children and Young People.

Safford, Kimberly and Chamberlain, Liz eds. Oxford: Routledge and the Open University. Teachers' Voices. Capturing the Dynamics of Change. Dhaka, Bangladesh: English in Action, Bangladesh. Seargeant, Philip ed. English in Japan in the Era of Globalization. Routledge Handbooks in English Language Studies.

Seargeant, Philip and Swann, Joan eds. English in the World: History, Diversity, Change. Seargeant, Philip and Tagg, Caroline eds. Post-qualifying Social Work. Seden, Janet and Reynolds, Jill eds. Managing care in practice. The Routledge Handbook of Metaphor and Language. Routledge Handbooks in Linguistics. Virtual Worlds: Controversies at the Frontier of Education. Hauppauge, N. Sheehy, Kieron and Holliman, Andrew eds.

Ethics and research in Inclusive Education: values into practice. Shrestha, Prithvi N. Reading: Garnet Education. Routledge Psychology in Education. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. Soler, Janet M. Teacher development: exploring our own practice. Developing Practice in Primary Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Teamwork and Collaboration in Early Years Settings. Creativity in Language and Literature: the state of the art. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Cullompton: Willan.

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Tetley, Josie ; Watts, Jacqueline H. Identity, agency and social institutions in educational ethnography. Studies in Educational Ethnography, Methodological issues and practices in ethnography. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. Ward, H and Rose, Wendy eds. Approaches to Needs Assessment in Children's Services. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Working with Parents in Early Years Settings.

Watson, Naomi A. Nursing in primary care: A handbook for students. Baskingstoke: Palgrave. Watson, Nicola J. Children's Literature: Approaches and Territories. Watts, Jackie and Tarrant, Anna eds. Learning in Landscapes of Practice: Boundaries, identity, and knowledgeability in practice-based learning.

Whalley, Mary E. Leading Practice in Early Years Settings. Exeter: Learning Maters. Leading Professional Practice in Education. Developmental Psychology in Action. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Woodhead, Martin and Brooker, Liz eds. Healthy Environments. Early Childhood in Focus, 8. Woodhead, Martin and Moss, Peter eds. Early Childhood in Focus 2. Woods, Peter and Hammersley, Martyn eds. School Experience: Explorations in the sociology of education. London: Croom Helm. Younie, Sarah and Bradshaw, Pete eds. Debates in Education. Confronting Metaphor in Use: An applied linguistic approach.

Abeles, Margi and Katz, Jeanne Samson A time to mourn: Reflections on Jewish bereavement practices. Bereavement Care , 29 1 pp. The fostering of innovative eLearning strategies in European higher education. Some issues affecting the sustainability of open learning courses. Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag, pp. Irish Journal of Medical Science , 1 pp.

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Situated learning in virtual worlds and identity reformation. In: Peachey, Anna and Childs, Mark eds. Immersive Environments. London: Springer-Verlag, pp. Adams, Anne and Blandford, Ann Acceptability of medical digital libraries. Health Informatics Journal , 8 2 pp. Implementing digital resources for clinicians' and patients' varying needs.

Informatics for Health and Social Care , 30 2 pp. Adams, Anne and Clough, Gill The e-assessment burger: supporting the before and after in e-assessment systems. Interaction Design and Architecture s , 25 pp. Police Knowledge Exchange: Full Report The Open University, UK. Designing interconnected distributed resources for collaborative inquiry based science education. Live linking of fieldwork to the laboratory increases students inquiry based reflections.

Out there and in here: design for blended scientific inquiry learning. Of catwalk technologies and boundary creatures. Co-created Evaluation: identifying how games support police learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies , pp. Turn it on its head! Juxtaposed Learning. Creative Education In Press. Adams, H. The Languages Classroom: comfort zone or obstacle course.

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Biting the bullet: getting the best out of speaking practice in languages tutorials. Classroom Discourse , 1 2 pp. Adams, Helga and Nicolson, Margaret Getting the best out of speaking practice in language tutorials. Feeling the difference in the languages classroom: explorations of teacher understanding of diversity. Language Learning Journal , 42 1 pp. Learner diversity. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, pp. Adams, John and Johnson, Julia Older people 'found dead' at home: challenges for the coroner system in England and Wales.

Mortality , 13 4 pp. Addae-Kyeremeh, Eric Messengers or agents? The capacity of headteachers to influence educational policy change in Ghana. Learning-centred leadership: practices and effects. Professional development spaces: an exploratory study of headteachers perspectives in Ghana. Professional learning through networking: perceptions and practices amongst basic school headteachers in Ghana.

Connectedness and organisational learning: The role of relationships in supporting headteacher professional development. Addae-Kyeremeh, Eric and Fox, Alison What makes useful evidence for educational leadership practice? An interview. Management in Education , 32 1 pp. Addae-Kyeremeh, Eric and Wise, Christine School-based learning and development: revisiting professional development for headteachers in India. Addo, O. American Journal of Human Biology , 27 1 pp. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.

Maternal height and child growth patterns. The Journal of Pediatrics , 2 pp. Adinolfi, L. Eds Special issue on the theme: Researchers and practitioners in dialogue , Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts , Vol. Adinolfi, Lina Utilising tablets and one-to-one coaching to create classroom videos for teacher development in India. In: Pickering, George and Gunashekar, Paul eds. Ensuring quality in English language teacher education.

British Council, pp. An exploratory study of translanguaging practices in an online beginners' foreign language classroom. Language Learning in Higher Education. Developing competence in the language 2 : Writing and speaking skills. In: ed. Success wtih Languages. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. Aggleton, Jen New Review of Children's Literature and Librarianship , 24 1 pp. Defining digital comics: a British Library perspective.

Collecting and Preserving Digital Comics. The British Library, London. Children's Literature in Education , 48 3 pp. Francophonie 47 , article no. Ahier, J. Graduate Citizens. Ahier, John and Beck, John Education and the Politics of Envy. British Journal of Educational Studies , 51 4 pp. Does the availability of a South Asian language in practices improve reports of doctor-patient communication from South Asian patients?

Cross sectional analysis of a national patient survey in English general practices. BMC Family Practice , 16 Qualities of effective teachers who teach disadvantaged students: insights from the Varkey Teacher Ambassador Community. The Varkey Foundation, UK. Research in Comparative and International Education , 9 4 pp. Albery, Ian P. Comparative optimism about health and nonhealth events in 8- and 9-Year-old children. Health Psychology , 24 3 pp.

Albino, Gabriel EdD thesis The Open University. Louise Rosenblatt seeks QtAznBoi aol. Multimodal reading and design in a cross-disciplinary curriculum theorising. In: Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D. Redesigning pedagogy: Reflections on theory and praxis. Bold visions in educational research, Netherlands: Sense Publishers, pp. Albright, James; Purohit, Kiran D. Response to Bettina Fabos. Pedagogies: An International Journal , 1 4 pp. Hybridity, globalisation, and literacy education in the context of New York City's Chinatown. Chinatown: globalization, hybridity and literacy education. Albright, James and Walsh, Christopher Multiliteracies as transdisciplinarity curriculum practice.

Jamming visual culture. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years , Albright, James; Walsh, Christopher S. Towards a theory of practice: critical transdisciplinarymultiliteracies. In: McInerney, Dennis M. Standards in Education. Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning.

Charlotte, NC, U. Albright, James J. Standards In Education. Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning. Information Age Publishers, pp. Using student experience as a model for designing an automatic feedback system for short essays. International Journal of e-Assessment , 4 1 , article no. Aldgate, Jane Measuring outcomes in short-term fostering services. Evaluation in child and family services: comparative client and program perspectives. Modern applications of social work.

Ordinary children in extraordinary circumstances. In: Iwaniec, Dorota ed. The Child's journey through care: placement stability, care planning, and achieving permanency. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons, pp. Aldgate, Jane and McIntosh, Miranda Looking after the family: a study of children looked after in kinship care in Scotland. Edinburgh, UK: Astron. Time well spent: a study of well-being and children's daily activities. Aldgate, Jane and Stratham, Jane The Children Act now: messages from research.

London, UK: Stationery Office. Ritual performances and collective intelligence: theoretical frameworks for analyising activity patterns in Cloudworks. Conceptualising collaborative participation and engagement for learning and creativity in OER communities. Diversity and Equality in Healthcare , 15 4 pp. Disability, Ethnicity and Childhood: a critical review of research. Disability and Society , 16 7 pp. Elderly people: Choice, participation and satisfaction. London: Policy Studies Institute.

Sporting embodiment, weather work and weather learning in running and triathlon. International Review for the Sociology of Sport , 54 7 pp.

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Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn and Owton, Helen International Review for the Sociology of Sport , 49 5 pp. Opening up dialogues and airways: using vignettes in research to enrich asthma understandings in sport and exercise. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health , 8 4 pp.

Journal of Contemporary Ethnography , 47 3 pp. Alleyn, Chrissy and Jones, Rebecca L. Queerying care: Dissident Trans identities in health and social care settings. Policy and Practice in Health and Social Care Allington, Daniel How to do things with literature: blasphemous speech acts, satanic intentions, and the uncommunicativeness of verses.

Poetics Today , 29 3 pp. Social Semiotics , 17 1 pp. First steps towards a rhetorical psychology of literary interpretation. Journal of Literary Semantics , 35 2 pp. Re-reading the script: a discursive appraisal of the use of the 'schema' in cognitive poetics.

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Distinction, intentions, and the consumption of fiction: negotiating cultural legitimacy in a gay reading group. European Journal of Cultural Studies , 14 2 pp. Language and Literature , 20 4 pp. Private experience, textual analysis, and institutional authority: the discursive practice of critical interpretation and its enactment in literary training.

Language and Literature , 21 2 pp. Theorising postcolonial reception: writing, reading and moral agency in the Satanic Verses affair.

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Postcolonial audiences: readers, viewers and reception. Routledge Research in Postcolonial Literatures. London: Routledge, pp. On the use of anecdotal evidence in reception study and the history of reading. In: Gunzenhauser, Bonnie ed. The History of the Book 6. London: Pickering and Chatto, pp. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. Allington, Daniel and Benwell, Bethan Reading the reading experience: an ethnomethodological approach to 'booktalk'.

In: Lang, Anouk ed. Studies in Print Culture and the History of the Book. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, pp. Allington, Daniel and Hewings, Ann Reading and writing in English. In: Allington, Daniel and Mayor, Barbara eds. Communicating in English:Talk, Text, Technology.

Abingdon: Routledge in association with the Open University, pp. Allington, Daniel and Swann, Joan Researching literary reading as social practice. Language and Literature , 18 3 pp. Special issue of Language and Literature: Literary reading as social practice. Sage, UK. The mediation of response: a critical approach to individual and group reading practices. In: Crone, Rosalind and Towheed, Shafquat eds. The History of Reading, Vol. Almack, Kathryn; Jones, Rebecca L. Bisexuality and ageing: Why it matters for social work practice. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. Alpay, L. Contexts for collaboration in healthcare education. Health Informatics Journal , 7 pp. Alshawabka, Khaled Elwalid In: VV, AA ed. Valencia, Spain: Ediciones Mahalia, pp. Alvarez, I. Enhancing the ELP for the 21st Century.

Language, Culture and Curriculum , 20 2 pp. Time as a strand of the dance medium. The CEFcult project: assessing oral proficiency in an intercultural professional context. Natural and artistic bodies in dance. The expressive condition of the dancing body.

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Cultural frontiers of expressive strands in dance performances. Disciplined minds: fitting an intercultural dimension in language teaching. Alvarez, Inma High aspirations: transforming dance students from print consumers to digital producers. Journal of Interactive Media in Education , article no.

Learning about Chinese-speaking cultures at a distance. Intercultural Studies and Foreign Language Learning 5. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. El arte de recrear: el concepto de autenticidad en la danza. Valencia: Ediciones Mahali, pp. From paper to the web: the ELP in the digital era. Ethical and aesthetic considerations in language MOOCs. Open Series.

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Warsaw: De Gruyter, pp. A learning-centred blended model for professional doctorates. In: Ubachs, George and Konings, Lizzie eds. The Envisioning Report for Empowering Universities. Destrezas interculturales en una comunidad virtual. El sitio A buen puerto de la Open University. In: Gimeno Sanz, A. Universidad de Valencia, pp.

Performing languages: an example of integrating open practices in staff development for language teachers. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society , 9 1 pp. Strategies for acquiring intercultural communication. In: Hurd, Stella and Lewis, Timothy eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, pp. Teachers roles and training in intercultural education. Strategies for the development of multicultural competence in language learning. In: Coleman, James A. Language-learning futures : issues and strategies for modern language provision in Higher Education.

London: CiLT Publications, pp. In: Jin, Lixian and Cortazzi, Martin eds. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. University Council of Modern Languages. Kriminaliteten registreres som problematferd, en underlegges tvangstiltak i henhold til helse- og omsorgstjenesteloven. Myndighetene vedtar vakre og vel menende lover. I sa regjering og storting at arbeidstilbudet til mennesker med utviklingshemning skulle styrkes etter hvert.

Det motsatte har trolig skjedd. I ble de statlige spesialskolene nedlagt, men det er flere elever i dagens spesialskoler enn det som det noen gang var i de statlige spesialskolene. Vi vet f. Jens Petter Gitlesen. Lover gratis SFO etter 4. Samfunn for alle beklager Tvangsbegrensningsloven vs. Takk til politikerne i Sola! In this session, the concept of emerging credit markets is analyzed from various perspectives, especially from the point of view of crises. Of special interest is change and transition over time, and when this could be observed in different geographical regions and among different actors.

The Nordic countries, as industrial latecomers, were probably reformed later when compared to the continental forerunners. The amount of historical data from the regions makes deep analysis possible. Results from the Nordic countries will be related to the development in other European countries. Historians Without Borders HWB is based on an association with the same name, established in Finland in and working as the secretariat of the international network.

The network, consisting of historians and politicians, aims at promoting a dialogue and cooperation between academic historians, media and political actors, at pursuing an internationally open and free access to historical materials and sources and at counteracting misuse of history in different parts of the world. Practical ways of reaching the aims are constituted by international symposia and conferences, by publications bringing scholars from different countries together to work towards a dialogue between communities of historical research and memory.

The primary pragmatic aim is to counteract the harmful impact of the untenable historical myths on international relations. The first publication by the HWB, the anthology 'The use and Abuse of History' dealt with issues of history politics and the role of history in conflict resolution. In —09 maritime commerce, fishing and traffic in the Sulu Archipelago in the Southern Philippines came almost to a stand-still due to a surge in piracy and coastal raids that challenged U.

The pirate leader was a renegade subject of the Sultan of Sulu, a Samal named Jikiri. Together with his followers he was responsible for the murder of at least forty people in numerous raids throughout the Archipelago. In spite of the concerted efforts of the U. Army, the Philippine Constabulary and private bounty hunters, Jikiri was able to avoid defeat for more than one and half years, before he was eventually killed in July His decision to take to piracy was triggered by the failure of the U. The law was in several respects disadvantegeous to the native population of Sulu and combined with the high-handed behavior of the local officers in charge of the Sulu District from to fuel widespread discontent with colonial rule and led several of the leading headmen of Sulu covertly to sympathize with and protect Jikiri and his followers.

This sponsorship combined with the general reluctance of the population to cooperate with the U. American officers at the time tended to explain the depredations by the allegedly piratical nature of the Sulus, but the article argues that the so-called decay theory, first proposed by Raffles a century earlier, is more appropriate in order to explain the surge in piracy.

The Nordic countries underwent a process of profound economic progress in the 19th and early 20th century. The industrialization process changed the economic structures and the division of labour. Trade on foreign markets boomed and business life was reorganized in many aspects. In contemporary words one may say that the Nordic area became an emerging market characterized by rapid technological progress, new ventures and opportunities. One of the profound changes behind the transition of economic life was the liberalization of economic activities. The Liberalization of economic policy and trade facilitated emerging new business and new corporate structures.

Additionally, the growing wage-labour market opened up for new occupations, increased labour force mobility and improved standards of living. But the emerging wage labour market also challenged the role of the family and traditional forms of assurance from life's uncertainty. Measures against accidents and sickness were urgent in the emerging industrial society. The Nordic countries show many similarities, but also important differences in the process of economic modernisation and industrialization.

A comparative analysis may therefore offer more insights into the mechanisms and cause of events than a single-country study only. With that in mind, we seek to organize a session that provides a comparative Nordic perspective on reforms and social and economic aspects taking place during the phase of industrialization. It will contribute with insights on the liberalization of economic activities taking place in the early phase of industrialization.

The session also put focus on the role of labour force mobility by tracing the emigration of Nordic engineers. We offer insights on the situation of women's possibilities in the emerging labour market by examine reforms and outcomes of labour market protection laws and maternity insurance. Og giver det mest mening at tale om en langstrakt reformationsproces med flere faser eller snarere om forskellige reformationer? Ble samlingskulturen preget av museale agendaer og nasjonale stereotypier? In the decades following World War II, state-administered development aid emerged as a new area for policy and action in the Scandinavian countries.

Family planning and population control were promoted right from the start. Population control was seen as a crucial precondition for modernization of the Third World, and also as a security concern in the volatile context of Cold War and decolonization. At the same time, however, population control was deeply controversial as it involved the promotion of contraceptives. Religious and ethical opposition, mainly from Catholic countries, made population control difficult to promote through multilateral aid.

In this situation, the Scandinavian countries — perceiving themselves as particularly secularized and unfettered by religious concerns, and seeing family planning as a means to liberating women — strove to promote family planning bilaterally instead. While family planning and the use of contraceptives remained controversial also in the Scandinavian countries, a number of individual actors with a longstanding interest in population planning supported the Scandinavian promotion of family planning, both through bilateral aid and through international fora.

We will also make comparisons between the policies and practices that emerged from the different Scandinavian countries, and put their development into a larger transnational and global context. Ett paper skal argumentere for at folkeretten var fundamentet for Norges utenrikspolitiske agering allerede i unionstiden med Sverige. Ett paper diskuterer Danmarks folkerettsengasjement i mellomkrigstiden. The Winter War —40 against the Soviet Union left the country with a nationalist underdog trauma: Finland was a young nation state with a small population, neighbouring a powerful and hostile country.

According to the founders of the new association, Finnish population policy needed a drastic reform in order for Finland to be able to withstand the geopolitical threat posed by the Soviet Union. What was identified, defined and represented as the cause of the population crisis, and, respectively, as the remedy? This changed during the first half of the twentieth century. Laws concerning child labour were established, the educational system was extended, and incomes for workers increased. All in all, this development resulted in rising costs for having children.

Furthermore, net costs for working children seem to have increased, too. One cause was increasing enrolment in secondary education. Another, that contributions from working adolescents were smaller in This resulted in higher costs for having adolescents living at home. The development was most obvious among more well-off workers. Perhaps their adolescents were allowed to keep more of their incomes for themselves. The development can probably be seen as another aspect of the trade-off between quantity and quality of children Becker ; In the full paper, long-term trends in development will be easier to establish by also adding household budget surveys for and How should the future archive sector support the research-based history?

Archives worldwide are undergoing a digital transformation in terms of collecting, preserving and making their collections available. The transformation is induced by the digitization of information formation in general, but is also due to an extensive retro-digitization of analogue materials. Preference is often given to genealogical sources — church records, census, military records etc. Even though this material may have some history relevance, it has only marginal importance in other history research contexts. The purpose of this session is to generate a general discussion on how the archives — in particular the national archives and city archives — adapt to the kind of digital research infrastructure that for instance urban history, but also other history disciplines need in the future and how to create links between research questions and digitization priorities.

The session will be based on presentations of concrete cases. Specific digitization projects that have sought to store and make available large amounts of digital data in archives in dialogue with historians; projects that have organized archive registration systems following the needs and standards suitable to history research; archives that have made history data available as part of open data or linked open data schemes; attempts af combining digital archives with digital humanities and for instance semantic and quantitative analysis tools; outreach activities that have sought to engage a broader audience in the digitization of history archive material.

I sponsorerede organisationen et forskningscenter i skolebyggeri i Bandur i Indonesien med 20 medarbejdere. Dette paper udvider perspektivet til relationerne mellem den vestlige verden og den 3. The Organization immediately undertook the task of identifying and modifying concepts which seemed to cause tensions, such as its renowned showdown with the concept of race. An equally important task was to provide and promote conceptual alternatives that could form the basis of the post-war world.

Carr as chairman. But how were concepts identified in practice? What were the conceptual trends along the way? Which individuals and networks influenced their definition? What external events and ways of thinking affected the work? And what was the role of the non-Western world in the definition of concepts that were often found in Western usage and promoted as universal? And if so, how should it be carried out? These are some of the questions that will be discussed by the contributors to this roundtable on the basis of their own research on UNESCO and focus on particular historical concepts.

This paper investigates the processes that led to the introduction of the Pay-As-You-Earn tax scheme in Denmark on January 1 In Danish history, the introduction of the PAYE-scheme broke new ground in several ways: It changed the relationship between the municipalities and the central government. It changed the standing of wives in relation to their husbands. It changed the relationship between citizens and the government. Moreover, it entailed the creation of the — hitherto and for many years to come — largest computer installation in Denmark. The investigation is primarily based on previously unexploited archival resources.

The material has been analyzed with the Social Construction of Technology approach, as outlined by Bijker and Pinch. By identifying the relationships between politicians, the bureaucrats of the central government, the municipalities, the employers, the system developers and the citizens, the paper attempts to uncover to what degree these agents were able to influence the creation of the PAYE-system and how they did so.

The paper concludes, that the social democratic politicians and bureaucrats — inspired by Keynes — saw the new EDP-technology as the one suitable and necessary way to introduce the PAYE-scheme. Commercial system developers quickly aligned, which resulted in scientific system developers being sidetracked.

The interlacing of decision-makers, experts and researchers are often put forward as a decisive factor in the creation of modern Sweden. However, research shows that this collaboration has never been without friction, e. The project analyzes intersections and tensions between the knowledge-base of policy and research within welfare politics, by the example of substance abuse policy. Drawing theoretically on science-policy nexus research and history of science, the project examines the relation between policy and research historically and contextually.

Making use of empirical and archival material from different arenas the project analyzes the shifting ways politicians, authorities and researchers have defined the knowledge-base of the field from the s and onwards. In three separate studies knowledge production, knowledge dissemination and knowledge utilization is examined. In a fourth study the results are synthesized and compared. In what ways have the status of research as a political reform instrument changed during the last century? Within the Nordic region, such enterprises have thrived remarkably well during the twentieth century, especially within the food retail industry.

This development pattern contrasts sharply with the experiences in most other western European countries. Here, while co-operatives held firm positions in the retail market by , the majority of co-operative enterprises experienced a steady decline during the post war years, and in some countries the consumer co-operatives even experienced a full collapse. Others have questioned this notion, highlighting instead the differences in how the various Nordic consumer co-ops have handled fundamental challenges. This session explores further the historical development of the Nordic consumer co-ops during the twentieth century.

The papers will focus on similarities and differences between the various Nordic consumer co-ops and how they have handled competition from other retailers. We will also investigate various attempts for cooperation between the different Nordic consumer co-ops, how such cooperation has affected their development but also underscored fundamental differences in culture, management styles and organisational structure. Historical research on cartels and competition policy is experiencing a revival. There is an increasing awareness that the development both in the regulation of anti-competitive behavior and in the collaboration within individual cartels have followed quite diverse paths.

Thus, current research questions simplified perceptions often presented in literature. Countries have followed different paths. Also the form of collaboration occurring within cartels has varied extensively and changed over time. This diversity is to a large extent a result of the economic, institutional and historical context. Alas, to receive a better understanding of both cartel behavior and competition regulation a historical approach is to be taken. In this session, the focus of attention will be on international cartel agreements, with a special focus on cooperation between producers in the Nordic countries.

Collaboration over the boarders occurred on a multitude of levels and both formal and informal cooperation could occur simultaneously. The three individual papers will look at the rationale and motivations behind such agreements, the various dimensions of the collaboration and, finally, how the collaboration developed over time as a result of transformations in the economic and regulative environment. The time period will be from the s to the early s, when the common European competition policies made the Nordic countries adopt on-tolerant competition legislations.

This led to the dissolving of several Nordic cartels. This is a second session dealing with Nordic cartels. Strong cartels can have influence on both domestic and international politics; a factor which was increasingly recognized since the interwar period and led to the first attempts to monitor and regulate their activities. However, not all cartels were strong and also international cartels were exposed to the political and economic situation both on the national and on international level. As a result, they inevitable have to adapt to the changing environment and to various political decisions, events and forces.

Efter reformationen udgjorde Sverige og Danmark sammen et luthersk rum i Nordeuropa. As social, political, cultural and ethnic relationships transformed civic space, the process of raising of society to a higher level of rational reflection and individualism became a painful experience that needed mediation. Similar studies of this period stress vernacularisation in the urban environment. My study looks at two other strategies of mediating the jump from an agrarian way of life to urbanisation in Riga.

From the first attempts at recalling the indigenous primitivism of Hanseatic Gothic in the 19thC, to the second phase of a specifically Latvian cultural identity formation in the thC, which emerges as a two pronged construct based on indigenous mythology on the one hand, and an altered sensibility reconstituting itself out of the negation of its medieval past, reflected in more horrific Gothic architectural forms that can almost be read as defamiliarisation of the human subject.

The aim of the session is to compare and analyze reforms of the teacher educations in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from up to the present day, with a focus on the period from s. During this period, teacher education was reformed several times and transformed thoroughly in all of the countries. A common change that teacher education underwent during this period in all countries, but still in slightly different ways, was that it became an academic education connected to the universities.

The participants will for example describe and analyze why and how the different reforms were prepared, who participated in the reform process, which arguments were used by different actors that were for or against the reforms, for example politicians and the teacher unions. Various societal changes that has affected teacher training will also be highlighted. An important process in all countries was the development during the s and s of a comprehensive school system, which influenced teacher education in different ways. Later, influences from new public management and the PISA-tests have affected reforms of teacher education.

There are both similarities and differences between the countries that will be discussed. The sessions consist of three presentations: one about Denmark, one about Norway and a joint presentation about Sweden and Finland. This panel takes as its point of departure the efforts by the Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen to enlist history in his Liberal—Conservative government's "culture war" against opponents to the left who would not stand up against aggression—be it from Nazis during World War II, Communists during the Cold War, or Islamists during the War on Terror.

Danish governments of different color commissioned historians to produce reports on cold war issues, culminating in the fiercely anti-Communist Bent Jensen's Centre for Cold War Research.

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Ever since antipositivism drove objectivism—cum—neutrality underground, the mainstream view has been that scholarship is influenced by the scholar's political and other values. This notion deprived left-leaning Danish historians of shelter when the Right dismissed their historiography for political reasons. Cognitive values offer a way out of the conundrum, providing scholars with criteria for theory choice which are independent from political values.

Martin Wiklund submits the concept of justice as a key to the engagement dilemma. Instead Wiklund points to the notion of justice for avoiding ideological instrumentalism and for letting the practical dimension be enlightened by historical experience. This is preferable to letting the cognitive dimension be determined by practical purposes or avoiding the practical dimension as such. And yet historians have produced a myriad of facts and middle-range theories that are never seriously contested--although there are certainly many disputed assertions as well.

Aspiring to assess the ground for the acceptance of the wealth of facts and theories of limited range as the poststructuralist or linguistic tide seems to be on the wane, this paper discusses four challenges to objective historiography. It is granted that each one of these challenges represents an impediment to objectivity in a strict, or global, sense. It is argued, however, that none of them prevents objectivity of a more local or limited kind: namely within the description under which the event or action is seen.

This arguably innocuous observation provides a foundation for scientific historiography after postmodernism. It acknowledges that we live in a post-foundational age, yet claims that within this world where everything is in flux, local objectivity supplies a pragmatically solid ground on which to build historical narratives and other higher-order theories. Germany has since the 19th century been a country of great interest to Swedish musicians and composers, both as a platform for international attention and in order to get a musical education of high standard.

During the Nazi period the musical connections were not cut off, but the reactions toward the excessive politicization of music were quite different. After World War II attempts were made in order to reshape the musical contacts between Sweden and the newly established German states. Sweden as a political neutral country had a special position during the Cold War. The GDR authorities considered Sweden to be an important country to which they could aim their political propaganda.

In this panel three researchers from three different disciplines present and discuss their ongoing research project titled Between East and West: Ideology, aesthetics and politics in the musical relations between Sweden and the GDR — In this project they study the musical relationship between Sweden and the GDR.

We will address the following central issues: The encounters between GDRs internationally oriented culture politics and those operating in the field and the musical organizations and stakeholders in Sweden. Main questions in the project are: How can the musical encounters between Sweden and the GDR becharacterized regarding dimensions, key areas, organizations and alteration? In what way did aesthetic and musicological ideas connect to politics and ideology in the musical relationship between Sweden and the GDR?

How did these ideas and their realization change over time? How do analyses of the musical encounters contribute to a better understanding of the Cold War context? For some years, historical thinking and reasoning has been an important educational goal for upper secondary education in many countries. The aim is to enable students to understand multiple historical perspectives, define historical significance, analyse sources and discuss change and continuity, to name a few of the central features.

However, few studies have focused on professional development programs for experienced history teachers who wish to build up these skills. Furthermore, the results of the analysis of history lessons in Icelandic and Dutch upper secondary schools are discussed. The analysis showed how some elements of historical thinking and reasoning are very prominent, such as the explaining of historical phenomena, causes and consequences and providing historical context of events or actions of people in the past.

Other items, especially those that have to do with providing explicit instructions on historical thinking strategies, are practically absent in the majority of lessons. The analysis of Icelandic history lessons was followed up by in-depth interviews with several history teachers who described their orientation and teaching behaviour. The Icelandic bank collapse has been blamed on reckless bankers.

But bankers are reckless everywhere. It has also been blamed on the — liberalisation of the Icelandic economy. This, especially the opening of the economy by joining EEA, certainly made the growth of the banks and their subsequent collapse possible. Icelandic politicians and public opinion were also quite susceptible to a small business elite who controlled not only the banks, but also most of the media and who contributed large sums to some political parties.

But general historical factors may have played a role in bringing the collapse about. Iceland had lost her strategic importance for the US. She was expendable, unwanted, as she had been for many centuries: In , the Swedes were not interested, for example, in acquiring Iceland alongside Norway.

The UK traditionally only took a negative interest in Iceland, trying to prevent any other big European power gaining influence there. Therefore, in Iceland was left out in the cold. European central banks and the US Fed saw no problem in letting the whole Icelandic banking system collapse, whereas the US Fed made extensive dollar swap deals with for example Sweden and Switzerland, never US allies, enabling their central banks to save failing banks. In addition, the British Labour government undertook two crucial measures. Possibly, it wanted by this to demonstrate the perils of independence to Scottish voters.

Transatlantic slave trade linked the economies of Europe, Africa and the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries. This paper draws on historical documents, and studies conducted by specialists in economic history that stress the key roles played by different actors, but without explicit reference to global supply chain.

We propose analyzing this phenomenon from the perspective of those logistical links established between the three principle areas: West Africa, the European continent, and the Americas. We will also examine the role of the providers ensuring maritime logistics shipping, auxiliary transport and the customers farmers in the Americas, African warlords. The purpose of transatlantic slave trade was to supply Europe with products from the colonies and provide needed manpower for plantations in the New World.

Key resources in each country were: 1 from Europe, fabric, wheat, jewelry, beads, alcohol and arms; 2 from Africa, slaves, mostly war prisoners from tribal strife; 3 from the Americas, principally sugar, coffee, cocoa, indigo, cotton, and tobacco. Stein was able to identify French families who armed 2, ships bound for Africa.

The objective was transporting slaves to American colonies for future sale, once there buying raw materials and then exporting those materials to Europe and along the way realizing a comfortable added value. This paper looks at roles played by key infrastructure aspects European slave trade ports and operations management definition of optimal transport conditions.

Historical documents demonstrate that transatlantic slave trade was based on codified organizational principles which were a developed and very important aspect of the slave trade enterprise. Counters slave trading ports in Africa served as hubs where slaves were grouped for export. Our analysis highlights the transatlantic slave trade and the presence of synchronized logistical flows with a process of mass transport that managed to maintain an intact workforce.

This panel explores different perspectives of Norwegian-Chinese relations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. More specifically, our focus is set on mobility, migration, transactions and encounters. It is our hope and ambition that this panel will add to the discussions on processes of globalisation in terms of offering new empirical knowledge, but also through addressing methodological and conceptual ambiguities within globalisation studies. Our point of departure is set in the early s.

This period saw a dramatic acceleration and intensification of Chinese-Norwegian interactions as both merchants and missionaries were drawn to China — the largest single market and the most populous nation in the world. Albeit driven by different motives, merchants and missionaries were mobile, global in their outlook and had a cumulative effect in linking an increasingly self-conscious and nationalistic Norway with the wider world.

Examining Chinese, English, German, Norwegian and Swedish sources and literature, the papers explore Norwegian-Chinese interaction and tension through selected case studies. This is also a response to the call by some of the doyens of this field, which argue that we simply do not know enough about the transnational histories between China and the wider world such as Osterhammel ; Westad Phrased slightly differently, what can micro histories tell us about macro processes?

Furthermore, how and why can the humanities and historical research add to the field of globalisation studies, which hereto has been dominated by scholars from the social sciences? As a result of the changes in warfare that took place in Europe from the end of the 18th century, reforms within the military leadership and the establishment of specialized corps, too, had to be carried through. The introduction of more mobile, often much larger and between themselves more independent military units, with vast needs for supplies that must be planned for and transported from behind the lines, meant that the military leadership had to be more efficient and consistent than ever before.

It also meant that the needs for intelligence and maps increased considerably. In Sweden, Colonel Gustaf Wilhelm af Tibell, took the lead in shaping such a new military leadership and, in close connection to it, also setting up a new special corps, aimed at reconnaissance and counselling the military head-quarters at all levels, map the whole kingdom, and write the history of war.

This highly professional and for its time modern corps - the Field Survey Corps - was established in The presentation will discuss the role the Field Survey Corps came to play for the development of the Swedish army in terms of modernisation and professionalization in the beginning of the 19th century. Today millions of families are separated because of war, asylum, or work. Contemporary working life requires mobility and migration has generated various systems for communication and money transfers from abroad to home.

In this session we focus on the mobile family life of early modern people. By leaning on the concept of mobile and split household the session provides perspectives on social groups which either moved with the male head of the household or split up when he or other family members left home for earning. We argue that the early modern household was not a firm unity, but its composition was constantly under transformation. Many households were far from the Lutheran ideals hustavlan of social order and gendered division of work. For instance, soldiers, naval and merchant sailors, seasonal workers, apprentices and vagrant labor often had wives and children, but seldom a permanent home.

In our papers we discuss how maintaining the family was performed in practice. In some cases, the family followed the male breadwinner and his work. In other cases, the family had to split up and the wife to take over many social responsibilities of the husband. The wives also often had to assume an important economic role in supporting the family. The session is contributed by the four younger generation PhDs and is based on their recent or ongoing research.

Armed conflict and natural disasters force millions to leave their homes every year. This paper explores the concepts and language through which the humanitarian sector has understood the challenges of acute crises. It examines how the geopolitical situation during and after the Cold War have influenced discourse in the field, and the impact that the shift from Keynesian to neoliberal economics has had on humanitarian vocabularies.

The paper addresses humanitarian concepts as political instruments reflecting objectives of preservation of life, guidance, and emancipation, thereby involving interests and power relations between donors and recipients, rather than being self-evident goals and laudable responses to crises. It combines an empirical approach with an awareness of theoretical issues in history and the social sciences. By focusing on rationales and conceptual histories in the lexicon of humanitarianism, it contributes to critical reflection on a field dominated by time-bound buzzwords.

While appropriating the theoretical and methodological insights of constructivism and conceptual history, it broadens the field by referring to recent history, to an extended set of agents and sources, and to transnational encounters. The survey encompasses voluntary organisations, government agencies, and UN bodies, and will synthesise and complement these results by including additional historical and geographical evidence. The roundtable aims at discussing the idea and the results of the project in the light of five years experience in running a big effort in deconstructing and reforming national history.

The five speakers introduce selected themes of the projec and reflect their experiences of "rethinking" Finland - or any society. The chair is professor Pertti Haapala, the director of the CoE, and the speakers and their topics are:. Pertti Haapala: Strugling with methodological nationalism. The speech discusses why methological nationalism has remained so strong and why it is difficult to overcome it in research and in public discussion.