Environmental history, like all historical studies, shares the hope that through an examination of past events it may be possible to forge a more considered future.
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In particular a greater depth of historical knowledge can inform environmental controversies and guide policy decisions. The subject continues to provide new perspectives, offering cooperation between scholars with different disciplinary backgrounds and providing an improved historical context to resource and environmental problems. Over the next fifty years, this transformative process stands a good chance of turning our physical world, and our society, upside-down.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Roderick Nash. Main article: Sustainability.
Main article: Advocacy. Main article: Presentism literary and historical analysis. Further information: Environmental determinism and Cultural determinism. Main article: Historical method. History portal Environment portal. Barton, Gregory A. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. Encyclopaedia of World Environmental History Vol 1—3.
London: Routledge. McNeill, John R.
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New York: W. Ponting, Clive rev. London: Penguin. Environmental History: A Concise Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. Richards, J. Blackwell Simmons, I. Williams, M. University of Chicago Press. Biggs, David.
Sociological Inquiry, Nov , Vol. Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa Oxford University Press; pages; scholarly essays on plague and environment in late Ottoman Egypt, the rise and fall of environmentalism in Lebanon, the politics of water in the making of Saudi Arabia, etc. Peloso, Nancy Lee. Thapar, Valmik. Bonhomme, Brian. The Rhine: An Eco-Biography, Clapp, Brian William. An environmental history of Britain since the industrial revolution Routledge, Hoffmann, Richard. Managing Scotland's environment Weiner, Douglas R. Landscape and History since Reaktion Books.
August Beattie, James. Environmental History. Bess, Michael b. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W W Norton. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Dovers, Stephen ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Febvre, Lucien A Geographical Introduction to History. New York: Alfred A Knopf.
Grove, Richard H Scientific American. Grove, Richard Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hay, Peter. Hughes, J Donald What is Environmental History? What is History Series. Cambridge: Polity Press. Environment and History. Huxley, Thomas H. Man's Place in Nature.
New York : Dover. McNeill, John R History and Theory. Toronto: Nelson Education. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Mancall, Peter C. William and Mary Quarterly 67 2 pp. Martinez-Alier, J; Schandl, H Ecological Economics. McNeill, J. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Merchant, Carolyn New York: Columbia University Press. Melosi , Martin V. Journal of Urban History. Mosley, Stephen. In Bass, H. The extraction of fossil fuels located inside Earth permitted an enormous expansion of production forces, promoting simultaneous growth of unparalleled intensity in population, urban-industrial structures and consumption of natural resources.
From the year , when the industrial system began to expand beyond England, to the year , global economic output increased fold and energy consumption rose fold. It was the use of fossil fuels, in fact, that made it possible to go past the scales to which human presence on the planet had previously been restricted. The growth of the human population on Earth therefore cannot be seen as a regular, homogeneous and merely cumulative process, i. It experienced radical breakthroughs related to major changes in the socioeconomic, technological and cultural fields.
However , it is important to note a second phase of the Anthropocene, which started around and is still in full force. This process resulted in an explosion of mass consumption of automobiles, telephones and televisions. Subsequently, new technological waves continued to contribute to the further expansion of consumption on a large scale, such as computers and cell phones.
The image is like a gale that unfolds into a hurricane: the winds of the industrial revolutions — which already represented a great change in relation to preindustrial standards of production and consumption — became squalls capable of radically multiplying the social and environmental consequences of human action. By , however, the figure had risen to ppm! A summarized vision of this change in level that occurred in the midth century can be seen in the following chart of global energy consumption between and Given this radical set of changes, what challenges present themselves for the future of humanity in the age of the Anthropocene?
This would be the moment when global public opinion, in the context of the very emergence of the concept, could recognize that there has been a change in the scale of human presence on the planet. Recognition of the risks inherent to this change — which manifest themselves, for example, in the potential dramatic consequences of global warming and loss of biodiversity — would demand a conscious discussion about our future.
It would be necessary to reflect collectively about the new ethical responsibility of human beings, while we look for possible paths to sustainability and social development in the different socioeconomic and cultural contexts existing in the world. There is no single, monolithic solution. The realistic and lasting confrontation of the global crisis needs to involve the intelligent coordination of a variety of strategies and policies. The great objective that presents itself for the future is the joint tackling of the environmental and social inequality crisis on a planetary scale.
It also needs to be clear that this third phase represents a desire or possibility above all. Nevertheless, although it is not a dominant reality today, this next phase is already being nurtured through numerous meetings, studies and debates that are multiplying across the planet in the pursuit of a sustainable future — and also in the countless conflicts related to the resistance of communities or social groups to the advance of environmental devastation.
One positive fact is that this mobilization is not limited to resistance, but also promotes a large number of social projects and experiments aiming at sustainable forms of living and working. Open to the public ; University Library.
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